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Kuhnke Glossary

Kuhnke Electromagnetic Technology

Glossary

General definitions for linear solenoids, rotary solenoids and holding solenoids.

Definitions

Definition of Linear solenoids, rotary solenoids and holding solenoids
 
A Single acting solenoid is a unit in which the linear stroke motion from a start position to an end position results from electro-magnetic forces. The return action is effected by some other external force mechanism.
 
A Double acting solenoid (with neutral position) is a unit in which the stroke is made by energization of the solenoid in one of two opposite directions from the neutral position. Return action to the neutral position is provided by some other force mechanism. The neutral position is therefore the start position for both stroke directions.
 
A Reversing linear solenoid (without neutral position) is a unit in which the stroke is made from one end position to the other when energization occurs. The end position in one direction is therefore the start position for the other opposite direction.
 
A Single acting rotary solenoid is a unit that utilises a rotary motion from a neutral position through energization of the solenoid. Return action follows through other means.
 
A Reversing rotary solenoid (without neutral position) is a unit in which the rotary motion is from one end position to the other when energization occurs. The end position in one direction is therefore the start position for the other direction.
 
A Holding solenoid is a solenoid without armature which, on energization, will attract any magnetic material.
 
Permanent holding solenoid
In contrast to a standard holding solenoid, which generates the holding force in the energized state only, a permanent holding solenoid is capable to attract the holding-plate in a nonenergized state. A short current pulse only reduces the holding force to near zero, so that an external force can release the holding-plate.
Electrical definitions for linear solenoids, rotary solenoids and holding solenoids
 
Rated voltage is that used by the manufacturer of the device in designating or identifying the supply voltage assigned for voltage devices.
 
Signal voltage refers to the rated current, cold winding (20 °C) and to the planned rated frequency.
 
Power rating, a suitable rounded value of the power, is used for designating and identifying the device or the component.
 
Design capability, is the product of the rated voltage and the signal current or the product of the rated current and the signal voltage.
 
Rated current for current devices is that used by the manufacturer of the device in designating or identifying the supply current assigned.
 
Signal current refers to the rated voltage and cold winding (20 °C) and also refers to the rated frequency.
Time definitions for linear solenoids, rotary solenoids and holding solenoids
 
Switch on period is the time span between switch on and switch off of the excitation current.
 
Switch off period is between switch off and switch on of the excitation current.
 
Operational cycle time is the sum of switch on period and current free pause.
 
Duty cycle (ED) is the ratio of switch on period to operational cycle time. Switch on reaction time.
 
Reaction delay is the time span between switch on of the excitation current and armature motion.
 
Stroke time* is the time span between commencement of armature motion and its end position.
 
Pull-in time is the sum of switch on reaction time and stroke time.
 
Switch off reaction time is the span between switch off of the excitation current and the beginning of armature return motion.
 
Drop-out action time is the time span between commencement of return motion and attainment of armature start position.
 
Drop-out time is the sum of switch off reaction time and return action time.
Temperature definitions for linear solenoids, rotary solenoids and holding solenoids
 
The warm operating condition is the condition at which the steady temperature is reached.
The sum of the temperatures of the upper ambient temperature and the temperature of the warm operating condition must not exceed the limit temperature set by the thermal class (pt. 6).
When not otherwise specified, the upper ambient temperature is 35 °C.

*In rotary solenoids, the rotational angel corresponds to the stroke.